(1) 1 THOMAS (CROUCHEMAN) CUSHMAN1,2, 38
Birth1512, Kent Co. England3
Death14 Jun 1567, Crankbrook, Kent, England, age: 551
FlagsAncestor of RCC
Notes: THOMAS CROUCHMAN died 14th June 1567 in Cranbrook (parish register).
The earliest baptism in the register is 1560 so that his birth date cannot be confirmed. The will of John Crocheman of Rolvenden in 1523 refers to a brother Thomas Crocheman to whom he leaves his estate presumably in Rolvenden and where Thomas is living and who is likely to be the father of the Thomas who later marries Ellen Hubbard.Such records are before the Rolvenden parish register transcripts which start in 1558. One family genealogy has him born about 1496 but no documentation.4

Another genealogy has him b 1512 in Hawkhurst, Kent, England, d. 14 Jun 1567 in Rolvenden, Kent, England, m Joan, b 1500 in Rolvenden, Kent, England, with children Anne Cushman b 1525 and Thoas “General” Cushman b 1538 in Hawkhurst, Kent, England. The source cited are family trees at “The Generations Network, Provo, Utah from trees submitted by Ancestry members.
SpouseUNKNOWN UNKNOWN , 39
Birth Memowife of Thomas Croucheman
Family ID23
ChildrenTHOMAS (COUCHEMAN) , 35 (ca1538-1585)
 ELIZABETH , 1477 (~1540-1576)
 RICHARDE Or Rychard Sr , 1478 (~1542-1575)
 JOHN Sr , 1480 (1544-1568)
 ANNE , 1481 (1546-1562)
 JOAN , 1482

(2) 1.1 THOMAS (COUCHEMAN) CUSHMAN 1,2,5, 35
Birthca 1538, Hawkhurst, Kent Co. England1
Birth MemoBirth date calculated from deposition of Thomas Cowchman 25 Sep 1578. Source: Depositions at Canterbury, 1578 as reproduced in Genealogical Research in England, by Elizabeth French, The New England Historical and Genealogical Register, Vol. 68, Published by the New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, April, 1914; p.182.
Death14 Feb 1585, Rolvenden, Kent, England, age: 471,6,7,8,9
Death MemoSt Mary the Virgin, Anglican.
Burial14 Feb 1585, Rolvenden, County Kent, England10,11,12,13,14
Number of Children5
FlagsAncestor of RCC, England, Gen #1
Notes: Many genealogies state he was Arch-Deacon of Canterbury.15 This has been found to be untrue. See research notes.

“The Will of Thomas Couchman of the Parish of Rolvenden, Co. of Kent, Husbandman, 10 February 1585 (1585/6) to be buried in the Churchyard of Rolvenden; To the Poormens box of Rolvenden, 2 S; To my son Rychard Couchman, 10L at the age of one and twenty years; To my younger son, Robarte Couchman, 10L at the age of one and twenty years; To my daughter Sylvester Couchman, 6L 13S 4D at the age of twenty years or day of marriage; If any of my children die under age, reversion to the survivors; To my Godchild Thomas Bredman 12D- To my Gochildren, Thomas Coyle, Thomas Gabriell, Marrion Hasleman, and Jane Couchman, a sheep each.”
Source: Burt Alvah Walford. Cushman Genealogy & General History, William Mitchell Printing Co., Greenfield, Indiana 1942; p. 53. Originally taken from the “New England Historical and Genealogical Register,” Vol. 68 under the Heading: Genealogical Research in England.

It appears that Thomas had a brother or uncle named John. “The Will of John Crocheman of Rolvenden, Co. of Kent, 2 March 1523 (1523/4) to be buried in the Churchyard of Rolvenden - To the Preparation of the Church of Rolvenden, 6 S, 8D. Toward the buying of a Cope for said Church 5 Marks; To an honest priest to sing in said Church for one year, 10 Marks; To the highway between the house of John Asten, the elder, and the Church 3S- 4D; To Johane Croucheman, my sister 13S-4-D. To Ewens widow, Vinkels Widow, John Blacke, Elyne Wederly and to Gabryell 12 D each; To Symon Harkwod all debts due me from him at this date; and to Goddeley Harkwod his wife, a barn adjoining the house he dwelleth in, with the ground around it, with reversion at her death to her son John and his issue and for default of such to her other children or else to my brother Thomas Crocheman and his heirs forever.”

Source: Burt Alvah Walford. Cushman Genealogy & General History, William Mitchell Printing Co., Greenfield, Indiana 1942; p. 53. Originally taken from the “New England Historical and Genealogical Register,” Vol. 68 under the Heading: Genealogical Research in England.

Son of Thomas Crocheman.

He married Elynour Hubbarde on 18 July 1568 in Rolvenden, England. Their marriage record is in the Archdeacons' Transcripts of the Parish Registers of Rolvenden, co. Kent, 1560-1612: "1568: July The same Day agayn [xviij] was maryid Thomas Cuchiman and Elynour Hubbarde.

Thomas was a Husbandman and was called a Householder at the time of his death. In a deposition dated 25 September 1578, Thomas Cowchman of the parish of Rolvenden, Kent County, having lived there twelve years and before that in the parish of Hawkhurst, aged forty years. (Depositions at Canterbury, 1578) However, there are no Cushman records at Hawkhurst.

Father of Deacon Robert Cushman, "Speedwell" passenger best known for being the person responsible for chartering the "Mayflower", obtaining the charter for the American colony from the King of England and having delivered the first sermon on American soil.He was born in Hawkhust, Kent County, England and migrated to Rolvenden, Kent County, England around 1574, where he died.

He was buried on 14 February 1585/6 in the churchyard in Rolvinden, Kent County, England.

Thomas' will was written on 10 February 1585/6 and was proven on 12 February 1589/90 by his executrix (Archdeaconry of Canterbury, volume 47, folio 276).

The Will of Thomas Cushman

"To be buried in the churchyard on Rolvinden. To the poor men's box of Rolvinden 2s. To my son Rychard Couchman £10 at the age of one and twenty years. To me younger son Robarte Couchman £10 at the age of one and twenty years. To my daughter Sylvester Couchman £6 13s. 4d. at the age of twenty years or day of marriage. If any of my said children die under age, reversion to the survivors. To my godchild Thomas Bredman 12d. To my godchildren Thomas Colye, Thomas Gabriell, Marion Hasleman, and Jone Couchman a sheep each. If my wife Ellen shall marry again before my children have received their portions, then her husband shall five security to Robert Gybbon for hte payment of the said portions, and if he will not, then my wife shall pay unto the said Robert Gibbon the said portions, and he shall lay it out for the use and profit of my said children, until they be of age to receive it. Residuary legatee and executrix: my wife Ellen. Overseer: Robarte Gibbon. [Signed] Signum Thome Couchman. Witnesses: Robart Gibbon, Leonard Wylson, and Symon Lingen. Proved 12 May 1589 [1589/90] by the executrix." (Archdeaconry of Canterbury, vol. 46, fo. 120.)
 
 
Burial:
Body lost or destroyed
Specifically: Based on his will, he was to be buried in the churchyard on Rolvinden16
SpouseELINOR HUBBARDE2 , 37
Birth1543, Rolvenden, Kent Co. England17,18
Birth Memoc.30 Sep 1543
Death1601, Ashford, Kent England, age: 5817,18,19
Death Memohas date of death as 22 Jul 1601, Ashford,
BurialSt Mary the Virgin Churchyard, Rolvenden, Ashbord Borough, Kent, England.20
Burial Memoilden Family genealogy says her body was interred 22 July 1601 in Ashford, Kent, England-
FlagsAncestor of RCC
FatherWILLIAM HUBBARD, 3154
Notes. Name also spelled Elynor Hubarde Maydn.1 Ellyn Cowchman widoe married 17 October 1587 Emanuell Everenden.6,10 who was testator of 1589, who was buried at Rolvenden 3 Dec 1589. 6,21 Ellen Evernden of Rolvenden, widow, married Thomas Tilden of Tenterden, Yeoman, 6 Nov 1593.22 23 Her father named William.24Tilden Family genealogy says her body was interred 22 July 1601 in Ashford, Kent, England. See: http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=106090901

Elinore Hubbarde born Rolvenden 1543 before the parish register
started in 1558, but there were numerous entries for Hubbard families from
1558. She married Emanuell Evernden in 1587 (parish Register). It is
interesting to note that there is no location of her marriage to Thomas
Tilden (not in Rolv PR) but the 6th Nov 1593 is the day before her daughter,
Sylvester marries Stephen Evernden.

Cushman entries in the Archdecacons' Transcripts of the Parish Registers of Rolvenden, County Kent 1560-1612, as presented in Robert Cushman of Kent, p. 226, has it as: 1568 "July The same Day agayn [XVIIJ] was maryid Thomas Cuchiman and Elynour hubbarde maydin".

Notes for Thomas Couchman: TRANSCRIPTS OF THE PARISH REGISTERS OF ROLVENDEN, KENT COUNTY, ENGLAND, 1560-1612:
1568 JULY THE SAME DAY AGAYN (XVIII)WAS MARYID THOMAS CUCHIMAN AND ELYNOUR HUBBARDE MAYDIN.
1572 ALYS DAUGHTER OF THOMAS CUTCHMAN BAPTIZED 20 APRIL 1574 ALYS DAUGHTER OF THOMAS CUTCMAN BURIED 9 MAY 1574 SYLVISTER DAUGHTER OF THOMAS CUTCHIMAN BAPTIZED
30 OCTOBER 1575 JOHN SON CHRISTOPHER CROOCHIMAN BAPTIZED 8 MAY 1577 THE IX DAYE OF THE SAME MONTH OF FEBRUARY WAS BAPTIZED
ROBERT CUTCHMAN THE SONE OF THOMAS CUTCHMAN [1577/8]1582 MARGARET DAUGHTER OF THOMAS CUCHMAN BAPTIZED
25 MARCH 1583 MARGARET DAUGHTER OF THOMAS CUCHMAN BURIED 5 FEBRUARY
[1583/4] 1584 HENRY SON OF THOMAS COWCHMAN BAPTIZED 26 JULY 1585 HWNEY AON OD THOMAS COWCHMAN BIRED 11 APRIL 1585 THOAMS COWCHMAN HOUSEHOLDER BURIED 14 FEBRUARY [1585/6] 1587 EMANUELL EVERNDEN AND ELLYN COWCHMAN WIDOE MARRIED
17 OCTOBER 1589 EMANUELL EVERNDEN HOUSEHOLDER BURIED 3 DECEMBER 1593 STEPHEN EV'RENDED OF TENTERDEN BROADWEAVER AND SLYVESTER COWCHEMAN WERE MARYED 7 NOVEMBER
FROM THE REGISTERS OF THE PARISH OF ST. ALPHEGE, CANTERBURY: 1606 ROBERT CUSHMAN UNTO SARA REDER DWELLING WITH IN PR'CNCT'S OF CHRISTCHURCHE [THE CATHEDRAL] MARRED
31 JULY FROM THE REGISTERS OF THE PARISH OF ST. ANDREW, CANTERBURY:
1607 THOMAS CHUSMAN SONNE OF ROBART BATIZED 8 FEBRUARY
[1607/8] FROM THE VISITATION BOOKS OF THE ARCHDEACON OF CANTERBURY:
1603, 14 NOVEMBER, THE CHURCHWARDENS OF ST. ANDREW'S,
CANTERBURY, PRESENT ROBERT CUSHMAN, SEVANT TO
Family ID22
Marriage18 Jul 1568, Rolvenden, County Kent, England25,26,27
ChildrenRYCHARD , 1484 (1568->1585)
 ALICE (ALYS) , 1476 (1572-1574)
 SYLVESTER Or Silvester , 1438 (1574->1593)
 ROBERT , 31 (1577-1625)
 MARGARET , 1439 (1582-1583)
 HARRY , 1440 (1584-1585)

(3) 1.1.1 RYCHARD CUSHMAN 28, 1484
Birth1 May 1568, Rovelden, Kent, England29
Deathaft 1585, age: 1629
FlagsEngland, Gen #1
This Rychard is important to us because he could have lived long enough to produce children and could be the Couchman/Cushman link. Also spelled Rychard. “Rychard C. Couchman's name recorded in father's will of 1585 (and listed first, before Robert or Sylvestor, the three then living children) but not listed as one of the children of Thomas and Elynor Couchman in A. W. Burt's Cushman Genealogy and General History (p 54). Also not listed with “Children Babtized at Rolvenden” in Robert Cushman of Kent book.”(This from Cushman-Pulsipher Genealogy and Family History.). Not mentioned in Elizabeth French work cited at vol 69, 1914, p. 181-185 of the Register, published by the New England Historical and Genealogical Society. 30

Ken Couchman notes there are two Richards born in 1568, one in Cranbrook and one in Benenden. A death of Richard Couchman, householder is recorded in 1625 in Benenden. We do not know which Richard died in that year. We cannot take baptisms from Cranbrook and Rolvenden and assume they are one and the same. There are in fact two Richard's in 1568 in the Cranbrook Parish Register; 29th August and 17th October but no indication of their parents. There was also a Richard in 1563. The Rovlenden PR clearly states that Rychard was the son of Thomas Cutcheman bapt 1 may 1568 and a couple of months before the marriage.

(3) 1.1.2 ALICE (ALYS) CUSHMAN OR COUCHEMAN 21,31,13,12, 1476
Birth20 Apr 1572, Rolvenden, County Kent, England21,1,6,13,12
Death9 May 1574, Rolvenden, County Kent, England, age: 221,1,6,32,33,12,13,34,35,35
Death Memoor 9 May 1572 St mary the Virgin, Anglican
Burial9 May 1574, Rolvenden, County Kent, England27
FlagsEngland, Gen #1
Source: Rolvenden burials 1558-1840.35 Also named Alya. 36

(3) 1.1.3 SYLVESTER Or Silvester COUCHEMAN OR CUSHMAN 21,1,37, 1438
Birth30 Oct 1574, Rolvenden, County Kent, England1,6,38
Birth Memobaptized 30 Oct 1574/75
Deathaft 1593, age: 1829
Death Memomarriage date of 1593
FlagsEngland, Gen #1
Married at Rolvenden 7 Nov 1593 Stephen Everenden of Tenterden, broadweaver. 21
Also spelled Sylvister in the parish register.6 And transcribed as Syluister12 Recorded as Silvester child of Thomas in Rolvenden baptisms 1556-189937
SpouseSTEPHEN EVERNDEN6,12 , 1487
He of Tenterden, a broadweaver.6,39
Family ID978
Marriage7 Nov 1593, Rolvenden, County Kent, England6,38,40,39,9

(3) 1.1.4a ROBERT CUSHMAN* 41,28,42,43,44,39, 31
Birth9 Feb 1577, Rolvenden, Kent Co. England45,1,6,46,47
Birth MemoBpt. 9 Feb. 1577-8 at Rolvenden, County Kent, England. Source: Mayflower Planters, vol.2; p. 179.
Death1625/1626, London, England, age: 4748,49,1,50
Death Memobelieved to be 16 Feb. 1625
Burial6 May 1625, Benenden Parish, England51,52
Burial MemoBurial place in doubt. See research notes.
FlagsAncestor of RCC, England, Gen #1
(Son of Thomas Couchman ) 2 See Research notes.
A description of his years in Canterbury can be found in Cushman, Robert C. and Paulick, Michael R. “Robert Cushman, Mayflower Pilgrim in Canterbury 1586-1607”, The Mayflower Quarterly, Vol. 79, No. 3 (September 2013), 226-235.53

Pilgrim Village Families Sketch: Robert Cushman
ROBERT CHARLES ANDERSON
Download pdf version
Birth:
Robert Cushman was baptized on February 9, 1577/8, at Rolvenden, Kent, son of Thomas and Elinor (Hubbard) Cushman.
Death:
He died in 1625, in England.
Ship:
Fortune, 1621
Life in England:
Robert Cushman was one of five children born to Thomas and Elinor Cushman. In his February 10, 1585/6, will,Thomas Cushman gave bequests to his three surviving children: sons Richard and Robert, and daughter Sylvester. Elinor Cushman married (2) Emmanual Evenden on October 17, 1587, and (3) Thomas Tilden on November 6, 1593. Robert apprenticed to George Masters in Canterbury to learn the trade of grocer. If he served a full seven-year apprenticeship, then he started in 1598. In November 1603 while an apprentice, he was brought before the church court for saying, “he will not come to his parish church, because he cannot be edified and saith he can and will defend it by the word of God.” He was excommunicated a year later, but granted absolution and received again into the church in July 1605. Shortly thereafter he became a freeman of Canterbury. Robert Cushman returned to England in the winter of 1621/2. He worked as Plymouth Colony’s agent, sending supplies, etc. until his death in 1625.
Life in Holland:
Robert Cushman and his family emigrated to Leiden sometime before November 4, 1611, when he purchased a house. He worked in the city as a woolcomber. Beginning in September 1617, Cushman spent much of his time in England, working on arrangements for the new colony. He and his family were among those that left England in the summer of 1620, but stayed behind when the Speedwell was abandoned.
Life in New England:
Robert Cushman and his son,Thomas, traveled to Plymouth Colony aboard the Fortune in 1621. While there, Robert preached a sermon, published in 1846 as “The Sin and Danger of Self-Love.” Leaving his son in the care of Governor William Bradford, Cushman returned to England with the Fortune that winter.
Family:
Robert Cushman married (1) Sara Reder at St. Alphege, Canterbury July 31, 1606, and had three children. She was buried in Leiden on October 11, 1616. He married (2) Mary (Clarke) Shingleton, widow of Thomas Shingleton, on June 5, 1617.There are no recorded children, but some identify the Sara Cushman who married William Hoskins in Plymouth on November 2, 1636, as Robert Cushman’s daughter by one of his wives.This theory remains unproved.
Children of Robert and Sara Cushman:

• Thomas was baptized at St.Andrew, Canterbury on February  8, 1607/8. He married Mary Allerton about 1636 and had eight children. He died in Plymouth on December 11, 1691. She died in Plymouth on November 28, 1699, the last of the Mayflower passengers.
• Child, buried at the Pieterkerk, Leiden on March 11, 1616. 

• Child, buried at the Pieterskerk, Leiden on October 24, 1616.
54

Robert Cutchman or Cushman baptized at Rolvenden, County Kent, England, 9 Feb. 1577/8, died in England, probably in the summer of 1625. He married first, in the parish of St. Alphege, Canterbury, England, 31 July 1606, Sara Reder, who dwelt in the precincts of the Cathedral at Canterbury; and secondly, at Leyden, Holland, 5 Jun 1617, Mary (Clarke) Shingelton, widow of Thomas of Sandwich, Co. Kent, shoemaker, the license for her marriage to her first husband celebrated at St. Mary Bredman’s Canterbury, being dated 28 Jan 1610/11.

Robert Cushman is well known as the agent of the Leyden Pilgrims in England, and arrived at Plymouth, in New England, with his son Thomas, in the Fortune in Nov 1621. He sailed for England in the same ship about a month later, on business for the Colony, leaving his son Thomas in the care of Governor Bradford. Apparently his wife never came to New England, and some speculate that she may have died before her husband and stepson began their voyage to Plymouth in 1621. It is clear, though, that Robert intended to return to England to continue his services to the colony an this may account for leaving a wife behind.

Robert Cushman: The Man Who Would Have Signed the Mayflower Compact But Couldn't
Discover History
Written by Robert Jennings Heinsohn, PhD   

During his years in Leiden, Cushman demonstrated unusual organizational skill such that in 1617 Cushman (age 40) and John Carver (age 51), deacons of the Leiden congregation, were chosen to travel to London to make arrangements for the congregation to immigrate to North America.

Initially Carver and Cushman sought a patent from the Virginia Company for a colony on the James River. The company was interested but King James refused to allow the Pilgrims to practice their religion as they wished. Next, Cushman and Carver approached wealthy Puritans in London. Sir Edwin Sandys, member of Parliament and Governor/Treasurer of the Virginia Company, and Thomas Weston a wealthy London ironmonger agreed to contact London colleagues to explore investing in a joint stock company with the Pilgrims to produce goods to sell in London. Eventually about 70 men of varying occupations, religious beliefs and positions in society invested in the company. The London men were called Merchant Adventurers. King James agreed not to persecute the Pilgrims providing they behaved quietly and were faithful subjects of the King. Negotiations with the Merchant Adventurers were tedious. In the spring of 1620 a revised agreement with Thomas Weston was negotiated, and Carver and Cushman returned to Leiden to present the agreement to John Robinson and the congregation. Disagreement remained which lead to further negotiation. Eventually a set of 10 articles of agreement emerged. Cushman returned to London to lease of the Mayflower and Carver remained in Holland to purchase the Speedwell. The plan was to retain the Speedwell in America for fishing and coastal trade.

Because the voyage and land clearing would be strenuous, it was decided that only strong men and women and their children would make the voyage. During the summer of 1620, the Merchant Adventurers assembled a pool of money and the Pilgrims who were chosen to sail sold their homes and belongings to pay for the voyage. It has been estimated that the cost of the voyage was approximately 1500 pounds. It became clear that additional people would be needed, and single men, and whole families of women and children were recruited in England. The new members were called "Strangers" while members of the Lieden congregation were called "Saints". Some Separatists never left England and had no close relationship with members of the Leiden congregation. On the eve of the voyage individuals were asked to sign the 10 articles of agreement. The articles had not changed since they were presented earlier and some displeased individuals withdrew from the voyage. Even though the agreement was unsigned, the remaining Separatists decided to sail and settle the issue at a later time. The Separatists selected a leader, "Governor", for each ship. To pacify the restive Strangers, one of their members, Christropher Martin was chosen governor of the Mayflower. Martin was an abusive person and disliked by everyone. Robert Cushman was chosen assistant governor to ensure harmony.

After two attempts to sail, the Speedwell proved to be overloaded, unseaworthy and it returned to port. During this period Robert Cushman became seriously ill. In a letter to Edward Southworth in August 1620 he thought he was close to death. When it was decided not to sail the Speedwell, Cushman was asked to remain in London to look after its passengers until they could sail the next year. The Mayflower sailed from Southampton alone on September 16, 1620. Cushman recovered and looked after the affairs of the passengers and purchased supplies for the voyage of the Fortune in 1621.

In April 1621 the Mayflower left Plymouth and arrived in England on May 6, 1621. Only then did the London Separatists learn of the arduous voyage, harsh conditions in Plymouth, the deaths of nearly one-half the Mayflower passengers, and that Christopher Martin died and John Carver had been elected Governor. The London Separatists were unaware that Carver had died shortly after the Mayflower left Plymouth.

The Fortune with Cushman and his son Thomas (age 14) sailed for Plymouth on August 9, 1621 with 35 new colonists but very few supplies. The Fortune arrived in Cape Cod harbor on 9 November 1621. The Plymouth colonists were downcast. Their beloved Governor John Carver had died the previous spring. The fall harvest had not been good, and the Fortune brought them only meager supplies. With 35 new mouths to feed, the winter looked bleak.

The compelling task facing Robert Cushman was to secure the colonists' signatures to the 10 articles of agreement that were not signed the year before. The continued support of the Merchant Adventurers depended on it. On December 9, 1621, the first anniversary Sunday of the Pilgrim landing in Plymouth, Robert Cushman gave a sermon, which along with Robinson's farewell sermon in Leiden, are quintessential statements of Pilgrim belief. Cushman's sermon entitled "The Sin and Danger of Self-Love" was based on 1 Corinthians 10:24, Let no man seek his own, but every man another's wealth. Cushman's pious prose is verbose by today's standard but the sermon speaks to us today as powerfully as it must have in the bleak winter of 1621. Cushman's remarks were a heart-felt plea for the Pilgrims to cooperate unselfishly for common good without regard for personal gain. I do not believe it an exaggeration to draw a parallel between John F. Kennedy's inaugural address in 1960 in which he said, "ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do your country" and Cushman's sermon. During the previous 12 months the hardships the Pilgrims endured softened the strongly-held opinions they and John Robinson embraced before they sailed for New England. They realized their marginal existence in Plymouth depended on supplies from England and they signed the 10 articles of agreement.

The writing of Cushman, Bradford and other Pilgrims shows that they had an excellent command of the English language. Except for William Brewster, few (if any) of the Leiden men were educated formally. Nevertheless all were literate and wrote, and presumably spoke with facility. Since the Pilgrims read and quoted the bible frequently, their command of language is not surprising. The Bible is poetic, eloquent and has a cadence that influenced English-speakers for centuries.

Creating the Undertakers in 1626 began a process that reversed Cushman's 1621 advice sermon and transformed the colony's fundamental beliefs. At no time was there a deliberate effort to repudiate Cushman's advice. Rather, economic conditions altered the Pilgrims concept of community. Ostensibly, creating the Undertakers simply transferred the colony's debt to familiar hands; inadvertently, the decision set into motion actions that made acceptable the pursuit of private gain.

Thomas Cushman remained in Plymouth under the care of Governor Bradford and his father returned to England on the Fortune on December 13, 1621. Carried on the Fortune were beaver pelts and other furs worth approximately 500 pounds obtained from trade with the Indians for corn. The cargo was the first shipment of goods to the Merchant Adventurers and important for their continued support. As luck would have it as the Fortune approached the English coast, French privateers stole its cargo and the passenger's belongings. Cushman and the crew were imprisoned in France but returned to England in February 1622. Luckily the signed articles of agreement and the manuscript of Mourt's Relation were not lost. Mourt's Relation was written to assure the Merchant Adventurers of the success of the colony and to interest others to emigrate.

After 1621 Robert Cushman was the colony's London agent arranging the transfer of remaining members of the Leiden congregation to Plymouth. As London agent, Cushman arranged the sale of furs and fish sent by the colonists to the Merchant Adventures purchased supplies for the colonists. When Miles Standish visited London in April 1626 he discovered that Robert Cushman had died (at age 48) during the spring of 1625. There is no record describing the details of Cushman's death.

Thomas Cushman married Mary Allerton (b 1616), the youngest daughter of Isaac Allerton in ca 1636. Both Mary and Isaac were Mayflower passengers. Thomas succeeded William Brewster as Ruling Elder upon Brewster's death in 1644. Thomas and Mary had eight children. Thomas died in 1691 and Mary died in 1699. Mary was the last Mayflower passenger to die.

Robert Cushman demonstrated enormous organizational ability. He was the principal person negotiating agreements with the crown and London investors, organizing the logistics to transport over a hundred people across the Atlantic, and lastly managing the finances to provision the colony and sell its products. His keen leadership was most evident when he persuaded the colonists to sign the articles of agreement they had strongly rejected the year before. Sadly he died before he could move to Plymouth and share the remainder of his life with associates who held him in such high esteem.
If the Speedwell had been seaworthy, and Robert Cushman not been ill and able to sail on the Mayflower, he would have been one of the first signers of the Compact along with John Carver, William Brewster and William Bradford.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Cushman, H. W., "Historical and Biographical Genealogy of the Cushmans: Robert Cushman the Puritan From the year 1617 to 1855", Little, Brown, and Company, Boston, MA, 1855
French E., "Cushman, Genealogical Research in England", NEHGR, 68:181, 1914
Cushman, M. L., "Pilgrims of the Fruitbelt A Cushman Genealogy", Heritage Press, Lansing, MI, 1980
Cushman, R. E. and Cole F. P., "Robert Cushman of Kent", General Society of Mayflower Descendents, Plymouth, MA, 1995
Stratton, E. A., "Plymouth Colony, Its History & People 1620-1691", Ancestry Publishing, Salt Lake City, UT, 198655


A genealogical profile of Robert Cushman
Birth: Robert Cushman was baptized on February 9, 1577/8, at Rolvenden, Kent, son of Thomas and Elinor (Hubbard) Cushman.
Death: He died in 1625, in England.
Ship: Fortune, 1621
Life in England: Robert Cushman was one of five children born to Thomas and Elinor Cushman. In his February 10, 1585/6, will, Thomas Cushman gave bequests to his three surviving children: sons Richard and Robert, and daughter Sylvester. Elinor Cushman married (2) Emmanual Evenden on October 17, 1587, and (3) Thomas Tilden on November 6, 1593. Robert apprenticed to George Masters in Canterbury to learn the trade of grocer. If he served a full seven-year apprenticeship, then he started in 1598. In November 1603 while an apprentice, he was brought before the church court for saying, “he will not come to his parish church, because he cannot be edified and saith he can and will defend it by the word of God.” He was excommunicated a year later, but granted absolution and received again into the church in July 1605. Shortly there- after he became a freeman of Canterbury.
Robert Cushman returned to England in the winter of 1621/2. He worked as Plymouth Colony’s agent, sending sup- plies, etc. until his death in 1625.
Life in Holland: Robert Cushman and his family emigrated to Leiden sometime before November 4, 1611, when he pur- chased a house. He worked in the city as a woolcomber. Beginning in September 1617, Cushman spent much of his time in England, working on arrangements for the new colony. He and his family were among those that left England in the summer of 1620, but stayed behind when the Speedwell was abandoned.
Life in New England: Robert Cushman and his son,Thomas, traveled to Plymouth Colony aboard the Fortune in 1621. While there, Robert preached a sermon, published in 1846 as “The Sin and Danger of Self-Love.” Leaving his son in the care of Governor William Bradford, Cushman returned to England with the Fortune that winter.
Family: Robert Cushman married (1) Sara Reder at St. Alphege, Canterbury July 31, 1606, and had three children. She was buried in Leiden on October 11, 1616. He married (2) Mary (Clarke) Shingleton, widow of Thomas Shingleton, on June 5, 1617.There are no recorded children, but some identify the Sara Cushman who married William Hoskins in Plymouth on November 2, 1636, as Robert Cushman’s daughter by one of his wives.This theory remains unproved.
Children of Robert and Sara Cushman:
• Thomas was baptized at St. Andrew, Canterbury on February 8, 1607/8. He married Mary Allerton about 1636 and had eight children. He died in Plymouth on December 11, 1691. She died in Plymouth on November 28, 1699, the last of the Mayflower passengers.
• Child, buried at the Pieterkerk, Leiden on March 11, 1616. • Child,buriedatthePieterskerk,LeidenonOctober24,1616.
For Further Information:
Robert C. Anderson. The Great Migration Begins. Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1995.
Robert C. Anderson. The Pilgrim Migration. Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 2004.
Robert E. Cushman and Franklin P. Cole. Robert Cushman of Kent (1577–1625): Chief Agent of the Plymouth Pilgrims. Plymouth: General Society of Mayflower Descendants, 1995.

The Cushman family ...is one of the historic families of New England. Its progenitor, though of short life in New England, was one of the leading spirits in all the preliminary movements in both England and Holland incident to the coming of the "Mayflower" Pilgrims to New England, where his descendants soon allied themselves with those of the "Mayflower" passengers. (I) Robert Cushman, a wool carder ofCanterbury, England, was associated with William Brewster as agent of the Leyden church in negotiations for removal, and came to New England in the "Fortune" in 1621, bringing with him his only son, Thomas. He returned to England on business of the colony, and died there in 1626, leaving his son Thomas in the care of Governor Bradford. It is well known that Robert Cushman was among the eighteen or twenty persons left at Plymouth when the "Mayflower" made her final departure from England. When the Pilgrims came to Southampton from Holland he was there, having gone ahead of them to England, and he was among them when they set sail from that port, only to put back into Dartmouth. They started again, and again returned, this time going into Plymouth, whence they made their final departure. Robert Cushman was, therefore, a passenger on the "Mayflower" from the time she left Southampton until she left Plymouth.
Governor Bradford says, "He" (meaning Christopher Martin) "was Governor int he bigger ship ; and Master Cushman, Assistant." At the bottom of one of the panels of the Forefathers' Monument at Plymouth is this statement: "Robert Cushman, who chartered the May Flower and was active and prominent in securing the success of the Pilgrim Enterprise, came in the Fortune, 1621." He married as his second wife, at Leyden, Holland, June 3, 1617, Mary, widow of Thomas Chingleton, of Sandwich, England. An extended account of the succeeding generations of this family is given elsewhere in this work, including Thomas, who accompanied his father to Plymouth in 1621 in the ship "Fortune," and became an important man here in church and colony.He was chosen and ordained elder of the
Plymouth church in 1649, and was forty three years in that office. He married Mary Allerton, of the "Mayflower," and their son, Thomas (2) Cushman, lived to be eighty-nine years of age. He was the father of Benjamin Cushman, who lived on a part of his father's farm, in a home on the south side of or near to Colchester brook. He married Sarah Eaton, and their eldest child, Jabez Cushman, was the father of Zebedee Cushman, who was a private in Captain William Crow Colton's company, Colonel Josiah Whitney's regiment, from July 29 to September 13, 1778, serving one month and sixteen days in Rhode Island. He also served as a private in Captain William Tupper's company. Colonel Ebenezer White's regiment, which marched to Rhode Island on the alarm of August i, 1780, discharged August 8, roll sworn to at Middleboro. He married Sarah Padelford, of Taunton. (VII) Alvah Cushman, youngest child of Zebedee and Sarah (Padelford) Cushman,was born October 10, 1797, in Taunton,where he made his home. He married, November 27, 1818, Sally Leonard, daughter of William Leonard. She was a strong and forceful character, and her influence was a potent factor in the upbringing of her children. These children
were: David, born July 15, 1820; Horatio Leonard, October 22, 1826; Sally M., July 29, 1830; Christianna L., January 7, 1832; William, August 28, 1834; Harriet P., October 14, 1837; William H., mentioned below. (VIII) William H. Cushman, youngest child of Alvah and Sally (Leonard) Cushman, was born November 2, 1839, in Taunton, and spent his entire life in his native place. For many years he was a nail maker with his brother David, and was well known and beloved by all. He was a member of Alfred Baylies Lodge, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, and held office in it for many years. He died at Taunton, August 27, 1901. He married Joanna Harlow, born October 12, 1840, daughter of John B. and Rebecca (Reed) Paine, the mother being a daughter of Levi and Lucy (Doten) Reed, of Plymouth. Mrs. Cushman is now a resident of New Bedford. Children : Henry Presbrey, born October 8, i860, died March 9, 1861 ; Herbert Elsworth, born January i, 1862; Albert Francis, born March 21, 1864, died November 17, 1884; William Alvah, born March 30, 1871, resides in New Bedford, and is connected with the Southern Massachusetts Telephone Company ; Jennie Edith, born January 12, 1874, married, September 8, 1897, Lewis Bright Barker, now of Central Falls, Rhode Island, and they have one .son, Winston Cushman, born December 25, 1899; Everett Morton, mentioned below; Grace Reed, born January 31, 1881, died August 29, 1882; Bessie May, born February 24, 1883, married, July 6, 1910, Francis N. Smith, and resides in New Bedford. (IX) Everett Morton Cushman, fifth, son of William H. and Joanna Harlow (Paine) Cushman, was born February 16,1876, and resides in New Bedford, where he is superintendent of the Holmes Manufacturing Company. He married, July 19,1905, Adelaide Louise Miner, daughter of Howard and Josephine (Hutchens) Miner (see Miner VIII). They have one son, Robert Miner, born October 16, 1906. Mrs. Cushman is a member of Fort Phenix Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, of New Bedford, of which she is auditor, and is quite activein the Young Women's Christian Association of that city.56

Division of property
“The eleventh lott ffell to the Governor Mr William Bradford*
and those with him, to wit, his wife
2 Alles Bradford and
3 William Bradford, Junior To this lott fell An
4 Mercy Bradford heyfer of the last yeare
5 Joseph Rogers* wch was of the Greate
6 Thomas Cushman white back cow that was
7 William Latham* brought over in the
8 Manases Kempton Ann, & two shee goats.
9 Julian Kempton
10 Nathaniel Morton
11 John Morton
12 Ephraim Morton
13 Patience Morton”57

From Great Migration Project (The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to N.E. 1620-1633, Vols. I-III, page 502-504)
Origin: Leiden, Holland ( misleading)
Migration: 1621 in Fortune
First Residence: Plymouth
Return Trips: Returned permanently to England 1621

Occupation: Grocer (in Canterbury); woolcomber (in Leiden)
Education: Several literate and businesslike letters written by Cushman to John Carver, Edward Sourthworth, William Bradford and to the Leiden congregation are evidence of a well-educated man [Bradford 45, 54, 107, 125. 128. 355. 361. 365. 373]. On 12 December 1621, during his brief sojourn at Plymouth, Cushman preached a sermon whose principal intent was to convince the Pilgrims to accept the terms offered by the London Merchants, and was therefore more of an economic than an theological nature. This sermon, accompanied by some additional notes by Cushman, was published in London in 1622 [Young, Pilgrims 255-68].
ESTATE: In the 1623 Plymouth division of land “Robrt Cochman” received one acre as a passenger on the Mayflower (which he was not) [PCR 12:4].
BIRTH: Batized Rolvenden, Kent 9 Februayr 1577/8 son of Thomas and Elinor (Hubbard) Couchman [NEHGR 68:181].
DEATH: 1625 in England. (On his return from England early in 1626, Myles Standish “brought them notice of the death of their ancient friend Mr.Cushman, whom the Lord took away also this yer” [Bradford 180]}.
MARRIAGE: (1) St. Alphege, Canterbury, Kent, 31 July 1606 Sara Reder [NEHGR 68:183], bur. St. Peter’s Leiden, 11 October 1616 [NS} {Dexter 611, Small Gen 671].
(2) Leiden 5 June 1617 [NS} “Mary Shingelton from Sandwich in England, widow of Thomas Shingelton” {MD 10:193, HEHGR 68:183); apparently dead before 1621 as there is no evidence she came to Plymouth with her husband and stepson.
CHILDREN:
With first wife:
1 Thomas, bp St. Andrew, Canterbury, Kent 8 February 1607/8 [NEHGR 68:183]; “William Beale & Thomas Cushman” received two acres in partnership in the 1623 Plymouth land division, as passengers on the Fortune [PCR 12:5]; in the 1627 Plymouth division of cattle, he was the sixth person in the eleventh company [PCR 12:12] admitted freeman 1 January 1633/4 [PCR 1:4, 21] m. by about 1636 Mary Allerton, daughter of ISAAC Allerton.
Ii Child, bur. St. Peter’s, Leiden, 11 march 1616 {NS{ {Dexter 611; Small Gen 688].
III Child, bur. St. Peter’s Leiden, 24 October 1616 [NS} {Dexter 611; Small Gen 688}.
COMMENTS: Beginning in 1617, and continuing right up until the time of his death, Robert Cushman spent much time in London and vicinity negotiating on behalf of the Leiden congregation and later on behalf also of the settlers in Plymouth. He, John Carver and William Brewster labored constantly in their dealings with a number of London merchants, arranging for the shipping and provisions for the Mayflower and the Speedwell in 1620. The details of these negotiations constitute a large portion of the story told by Bradfford in his history of these years.

Cushman had planned to make the voyage across the Atlantic in 1620, but when the Speedwell had to be abandoned he was one of those who remained behind [Bradford 54]. This original intention of Cushman and his many other services in behalf of the Pilgrims are undoubtedly the justification for the assignment to Cushman in 1623 of land in Plymouth as if he had been a passenger on the Mayflower.

On 2 November 1636 “William Hodgekins and Sara Cushman” married at Plymouth [PCR 1:45]. Some have held that this was another child of Robert Cushman, but this remains only a surmise [ see Small Gen 688-93].

Bibliographic Note: Lora Underhill has gathered together every record known to her of the life of Robert Cushman, and in the process has compiled the best biography available of the man. Her treatment also goes into great detail on the career of his son Thomas [Small Gen 669-755], with Robert Cushman at 669-93]. Elizabeth French in 1914 published her research into the ancestry of Robert Cushman, including extensive transcripts of records of the family in Kent [NEHGR 68:181-85].58

Date
1617, June 4
Names
Cushman, Robert, Cushman, Sarah, Cushman, Mary, Singelton, Mary, Singelton, Thomas, Keble, John, Carver, Catherine, White, Catherine, Paedts, Jacob, Vesaneveldt, Andries Jaspersz. van
Place
Leiden, England, Canterbury, Sandwich
Street
Nonnensteeg
Source
Register of marriages before aldermen
Description
Marriage certificate of Robert Cushman (F), widower of Sarah Cushman, from Canterbury, England, living in an alley in the Nonnensteeg, woolcomber, with Mary Singelton, widow of THomas Singelton, from Sandwich, England, with John Keble, acquaintance of the groom, and Catharine Carver (nee White, M), acquaintance of the bride, as witnesses59
Date
1617, December 7
Names
Brewer, Thomas, Brewster, Jonathan, Brewster, William, Carver, John, Keble, John, Cushman, Robert, Paedts, A.C., Butterfield, Steven
Place
Leiden, England
Street
Groene Poort, Pieterskerkhof, Kloksteeg, Pieterskerk, St. Peter's Church
Source
Archives of the notary publics in Leiden, notary A.C. Paedts
Description
Agreement between Jonathan Brewster (F), ribbonmaker, living in "De Groene Poort" on the Pieterskerkhof in Leiden, and Thomas Brewer, living in the Kloksteeg in Leiden, to go into business together. Conflicts between the two men will be adjudicated by four arbiters, excluding the normal courts. Parties appoint William Brewster (M), printer, John Carver (M), Robert Cushman (F) and John Keble, all Englishmen, as arbiters. The agreement is drawn up in the house of Thomas Brewer near the clock tower of the Pieterskerk (St. Peter's Church). John Carver and Steven Butterfield, inhabitants of Leiden, are witnesses. A.C. Paedts is notary public.60

Date
1609, February 12
Names
Robinson, John, Hout, Jan van
Place
Leiden, England
Source
Leiden City Archive 1574-1816, Register of decisions of the burgomasters and aldermen G, October 30 1608-August 4 1609.
Description
Permission granted by the burgomasters and aldermen of the city of Leiden to John Robinson, pastor, born in England, and about one hundred of his countrymen and fellow members of the Christian Reformed Religion, to come and take up residence in Leiden around May, 1609.61

On looking closely at the baptism entry, what at first looks like a D (Dutcehman) has been overwritten with a C in pen, not immediately obvious in black and whilte.

Ken Couchman found an entry in the Benenden Parish Register fiche; showing burial of 1625 6th May Robert Couchman a stranger. If this is our Robert, why would he be referred to as “a stranger”?

Note Will of a Robert Cushman of Frittenden, made 9 Jun 1580, in which there is reference to a son, Thomas. (Copy appears at page 214 of Robert Cushman of Kent book).

“I've had some info this week that pictures of the baptismal font at Rolvenden, which is likely the same font used for Robert Cushman's baptism, have been made available to be published at the website of the Pennsylvania Society of Mayflower Descendants, www.SAIL1620.org
The minister of the church in Rolvenden says that there is no memorial to Robert Cushman in the church. He's not even mentioned in the church guide. Until last Fall, the church was oblivious to the connection to Robert Cushman, the Pilgrim Agent.” (e-mail from Judy Swan 8 Ju; 2006)

DEATH: 1625 in England. (On his return from England early in 1626 Myles Standish "brought them notice of the death of their ancient friend Mr. Cushman, whom the Lord took away also this year"62

ROBERT CUSHMAN

ORIGIN: Leiden, Holland
MIGRATION: 1621 in Fortune
FIRST RESIDENCE: Plymouth
RETURN TRIPS: Returned permanently to England 1621
OCCUPATION: Grocer (in Canterbury); woolcomber (in Leiden).
EDUCATION: Several literate and businesslike letters written by Cushman to JOHN CARVER , Edward Southworth, WILLIAM BRADFORD and to the Leiden congregation are evidence of a well-educated man [ Bradford 45, 54, 107, 125, 128, 355, 361, 365, 373]. On 12 December 1621, during his brief sojourn at Plymouth, Cushman preached a sermon whose principal intent was to convince the Pilgrims to accept the terms offerred by the London merchants, and was therefore more of an economic than a theological nature. This sermon, accompanied by some additional notes by Cushman, was published in London in 1622 [ Young Pilgrim Fathers 255-68].
ESTATE: In the 1623 Plymouth division of land "Robert Cochman" received one acre as a passenger on the Mayflower (which he was not) [ PCR 12:4].
BIRTH: Baptized Rolveden, Kent, 9 February 1577/8, son of Thomas and Elinor (Hubbard) Couchman [ NEHGR 68:181].
DEATH: 1625 in England. (On his return from England early in 1626 Myles Standish "brought them notice of the death of their ancient friend Mr. Cushman, whom the Lord took away also this year" [ Bradford 180].)
MARRIAGE: (1) St. Alphege, Canterbury, Kent, 31 July 1606 Sara Reder [ NEHGR 68:183]; bur. St. Peter's, Leiden, 11 October 1616 [NS] [ Dexter 611; Small Gen 671].
(2) Leiden 5 June 1617 [NS] "Mary Shingelton from Sandwich in Eng~land, widow of Thomas Shingelton" [ MD 10:193; NEHGR 68:183]; apparently dead before 1621 as there is no evidence she came to Plymouth with her husband and stepson.
CHILDREN:
With first wife

i THOMAS, bp. St. Andrew, Canterbury, Kent, 8 February 1607/8 [ NEHGR 68:183]; "William Beale & Thomas Cushman" received two acres in partnership in the 1623 Plymouth land division, as passengers on the Fortune [ PCR 12:5]; in the 1627 Plymouth division of cattle, he was the sixth person in the eleventh company [ PCR 12:12]; admitted freeman 1 January 1633/4 [ PCR 1:4, 21]; m. by about 1636 Mary Allerton, daughter of ISAAC ALLERTON .

ii Child, bur. St. Peter's, Leiden, 11 March 1616 [NS] [ Dexter 611; Small Gen 688].

iii Child, bur. St. Peter's, Leiden, 24 October 1616 [NS] [ Dexter 611; Small Gen 688].


COMMENTS: Beginning in 1617, and continuing right up until the time of his death, Robert Cushman spent much time in London and vicinity negotiating on behalf of the Leiden congregation and later on behalf also of the settlers in Plymouth. He, JOHN CARVER and WILLIAM BREWSTER labored constantly in their dealings with a number of London merchants, arranging for the shipping and provisions for the Mayflower and the Speedwell in 1620. The details of these negotiations constitute a large portion of the story told by Bradford in his history of these years.
Cushman had planned to make the voyage across the Atlantic in 1620, but when the Speedwell had to be abandoned he was one of those who remained behind [ Bradford 54]. This original intention of Cushman's and his many other services in behalf of the Pilgrims are undoubtedly the justification for the assignment to Cushman in 1623 of land in Plymouth as if he had been a passenger on the Mayflower .
On 2 November 1636 "William Hodgekins & Sara Cushman" were married at Plymouth [ PCR 1:45]. Some have held that this was another child of Robert Cushman, but this remains only a surmise [see Small Gen 688-93].
BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTE: Lora Underhill has gathered together every record known to her of the life of Robert Cushman, and in the process has compiled the best biography available of the man. Her treatment also goes into great detail on the career of his son Thomas [ Small Gen 669-755, with Robert Cushman at 669-93]. Elizabeth French in 1914 published her research into the ancestry of Robert Cushman, including extensive transcripts of records of the family in Kent [ NEHGR 68:181-85]. 63

Translation from The Dutch Records at Leyden: "Robert Cushman, Woolcomber from Canterbury, England, Widower of Sara Cushman, dwelling in a little alley of the Nunsgate, accompanied by John Keble, his friend with Mary Shingleton from Sandwich in England, widow of Thomas Shingleton, accompanied by Catharine Carver, her friend, were married before Andries Jasperson VanVesanevelt and Jacob Peadts, Sheriffs, this fifth of June 1617." (Burt, p. 56)

The following was posted by Paul Cushman on October 04, 1998 at 01:42:10, on the Cushman Family Genealogy Forum, http://genforum.familytreemaker.com/cushman/: "I recently returned from a trip to Rolvenden, Kent Co. England, (birthplace of Robert CUSHMAN) where I did some snooping. I found his baptism listed in the parish records as Robert Dutcheman son of Thomas Dutcheman. There were some 20 other references to Couchman, Coutcheman and Cushman. I found it interesting that there are several Couchmans (pronounced cootchman)still in the area. I think we are very likely related but have yet to make a positive connection. Does anyone have knowledge of this connection? I believe that the spelling of Robert Cushman's name was listed in the Leyden, Holland records at one point during the pilgrims' exile as Croutchman. This leads me further to think that the pronunciation used to be the same as the current Couchmans referred to above."

Pilgrim Village Families Sketch: Robert Cushman
ROBERT CHARLES ANDERSON
Download pdf version
Birth:
Robert Cushman was baptized on February 9, 1577/8, at Rolvenden, Kent, son of Thomas and Elinor (Hubbard) Cushman.
Death:
He died in 1625, in England.
Ship:
Fortune, 1621
Life in England:
Robert Cushman was one of five children born to Thomas and Elinor Cushman. In his February 10, 1585/6, will,Thomas Cushman gave bequests to his three surviving children: sons Richard and Robert, and daughter Sylvester. Elinor Cushman married (2) Emmanual Evenden on October 17, 1587, and (3) Thomas Tilden on November 6, 1593. Robert apprenticed to George Masters in Canterbury to learn the trade of grocer. If he served a full seven-year apprenticeship, then he started in 1598. In November 1603 while an apprentice, he was brought before the church court for saying, “he will not come to his parish church, because he cannot be edified and saith he can and will defend it by the word of God.” He was excommunicated a year later, but granted absolution and received again into the church in July 1605. Shortly thereafter he became a freeman of Canterbury. Robert Cushman returned to England in the winter of 1621/2. He worked as Plymouth Colony’s agent, sending supplies, etc. until his death in 1625.
Life in Holland:
Robert Cushman and his family emigrated to Leiden sometime before November 4, 1611, when he purchased a house. He worked in the city as a woolcomber. Beginning in September 1617, Cushman spent much of his time in England, working on arrangements for the new colony. He and his family were among those that left England in the summer of 1620, but stayed behind when the Speedwell was abandoned.
Life in New England:
Robert Cushman and his son,Thomas, traveled to Plymouth Colony aboard the Fortune in 1621. While there, Robert preached a sermon, published in 1846 as “The Sin and Danger of Self-Love.” Leaving his son in the care of Governor William Bradford, Cushman returned to England with the Fortune that winter.
Family:
Robert Cushman married (1) Sara Reder at St. Alphege, Canterbury July 31, 1606, and had three children. She was buried in Leiden on October 11, 1616. He married (2) Mary (Clarke) Shingleton, widow of Thomas Shingleton, on June 5, 1617.There are no recorded children, but some identify the Sara Cushman who married William Hoskins in Plymouth on November 2, 1636, as Robert Cushman’s daughter by one of his wives.This theory remains unproved.
Children of Robert and Sara Cushman:

• Thomas was baptized at St.Andrew, Canterbury on February  8, 1607/8. He married Mary Allerton about 1636 and had eight children. He died in Plymouth on December 11, 1691. She died in Plymouth on November 28, 1699, the last of the Mayflower passengers.
• Child, buried at the Pieterkerk, Leiden on March 11, 1616. 

• Child, buried at the Pieterskerk, Leiden on October 24, 1616.

See also “The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England, 1620-33”
; woolcomber (in Leiden). Several literate and businesslike letters written by Cushman to JOHN CARVER, Edward Southworth, WILLIAM BRADFORD and to the Leiden congregation are evidence of a well-educated man [Bradford 45, 54, 107, 125, 128, 355, 361, 365, 373] . Preached famous sermon on Self Love on 12 Dec 1621 during his brief visit to Plymouth. On his return from England early in 1626 Myles Standish "brought them notice of the death of their ancient friend Mr. Cushman, whom the Lord took away also this year" [ Bradford .)

The original intention and effort of Cushman to come to New England and his many other services in behalf of the Pilgrims are probably the reason for the assignment of land in Plymouth to Cushman in 1623, as if he had been a passenger on the Mayflower. The ship Fortune arrived at Plymouth on November 9, 1621, just a few weeks after the First Thanksgiving. 
On 2 November 1636 "William Hodgekins & Sara Cushman" were married at Plymouth [ PCR 1:45] . Some have held that this was another child of Robert Cushman, but this remains only a surmise [see Small Gen 688-93]12

Robert Cushman, of Canterbury, a wool comber by trade and apparently another of the dissident Ancient Brethren who had quit Johnson's church in disgust. When he was named a deacon at the Green Gate is not known. 

Agent for the Pilgrims in London & Leiden, Holland
Came to Plymouth Colony in Nov. 1621 in The Fortune
50

Robert Cushman came on the Fortune in 1621 with son Thomas of 14 years. Returned to England in the Fortune and left son in care of Governor Bradford
Source: Genealogical Register of Plymouth Families by William T. Davis 189546
Passenger List, ship Fortune, 162164 This passenger list is based on the 1623 Division of Land, the passenger list compiled by charles Edward Banks in Planters of the Commonwealth, and by the information found in Eugene Aubrey Stratton's Plymouth Colony: Its History and its People, 1620-1691.
One of the Leiden Separatist leaders, Robert Cushman's English origins are given by Elizabeth French, "Genealogical Research in England-Cushman "NEHGR 68:181. He was baptized at Rolveden, Kent, 9 February 1577/78, son of Thomas and Elinor (Hubbard) Couchman. He was an apprentice to George Masters; was excommunicated from St. Andrews Church, Canterbury, after saying that he could not be edified by going to that church; was received back in the church in 1605; and in the same year became a freeman of Canterbury, being described as a grocer. His first wife was Sara Reder, by whom he had son Thomas, q.v., and he married (2) at Leiden in 1617 Mary (Clarke) Shingleton.
He and John Carver were chosen by their fellow Separatists to go to England to negotiate for a patent to go to America, and Bradford in his History has much to relate about him. In 1621 he arrived at Plymouth on the Fortune with son thomas, but returned to England with the Fortune, leaving Thomas in the care of Governor Bradford. Cushman died in 1625 before having the chance to return to Plymouth. A good account of his family can be found in Small Descendants, 2:669, which mentions also that a Sarah Cushman who married William Hoskins on 6 October 1636 was thought to be the daughter of Robert Cushman (Hoskins married [2] on 21 December 1638 Ann Hynes [PCR 1:45, 1071].
In the book, "The First Seven Generations of the Cushman Family in New England", by Joseph Augustine Cushman, it mentions Robert Cushman married 1. unknown (Mayflower Planter, vol, 1,2), married 2. Sarah Reder July 31, 1606 married 3. Mary (Clarke) Singleton June 5, 1617. Other sources do not mention this first marriage. Also, with his third marriage to Mary Clarke it lists two dates June 5, 1617 at Leyden Holland (Mayflower Planter, vol. 2, p. 179); June 3, 1617 at Leyden, Holland (Waterman Gen., p. 646)
Source: "Cushman Genealogy and General History", by Alvah Walford Burt Pub 1942 pg 56
Translation from the Dutch Records at Leyden:
Robert Cushman, Woolcomber from Canterbury, England, Widower of Sara Cushman, dwelling in a little alley of the Nunsgate, accompanied by John Keble, his friend with Mary Shingleton from Sandwich in England, widow of Thomas Shingleton, accompied by Catharine Carver, her friend, were married before Andries Jasperson Van Vesanevelt and Jacob Peadts, Sheriffs, this fifth of June 1617. (The entries show the bans were published three times, on 20" and 27" May and 3" June 161734

My father has Robert married to Margery Freeman, , 20 Jun 1575, Tenderden. (Two years before our Robert’s birth???) HWCushman chart at NEHGS has same info and also says she was buried there 15 May 1603. If this were true, his next marriage would show him as a widower but it does not. We may be dealing with a different Robert here.???

The information on the following appears to show Robert Cushman is buried in Leiden. I have corresponded with people there and this is not the case. Never the less, others will probably cite this as “proof” that he is buried there.
2004 — Memorial to Pilgrims who died in exile, Pieterskerk, Leiden, Holland
Mounted around the corner to the left of the exterior of Peter’s Church (Pieterskerk) from the Robinson memorial plaque, is this memorial to those adults and children who died during their exile in Leiden. The plaque, suggested by Jeremy D. Bangs, PhD, and erected by the city of Leiden, is highly significant because it begins with a quote from a member of the Separatists that is the earliest known reference to them as “Pilgrims.” Dated 1622 it predates William Bradford’s first use by eight years. The memorial reads: “During the Pilgrims Fathers’ Leiden exile, / more than thirty members died. / Many were buried in the Pieterskerk along with / their Leiden neighbors. / --- / ‘BUT NOW WE ARE ALL, IN ALL PLACES, / STRANGERS AND PILGRIMS, TRAVELERS / AND SOJOURNERS…’ / Robert Cushman, Pilgrim Leader, 1622 / --- / ISAAC ALLERTON’s child – 1620 / JOHN ALLERTON’s child – 1616 / THOMAS BLOSSOM’s children – 1617 /  THOMAS BREWER’s wife & children – 1617, 1618 / WILLIAM BRITSMAN’s child – 1612 / EDMUND CHANDLER’s child – 1619 / ROBERT CUSHMAN’s wife and children – 1616 / SAMUEL FULLER’s wife & child – 1615 / EDMUND JESSOP’s child – 1618 / JOHN KEBLE’s child – 1614 / JOHN KEBLE’s widow – 1645 / SAMUEL LEE’s child – 1619 / ROBERT PECK’s child – 1619 / JOHN REYNOLD’s wife & child – 1619 / JOHN ROBINSON’s children – 1618, 1621, 1623 / JOHN ROBINSON – 1625 / JOHN SPOONER – 1628 / JOHN & JANE SPOONER’s child – 1630 / RANDALL THICKENS’s child – 1615”

The Pilgrims arrived by boat from Amsterdam in the university town of Leiden on May 1, 1609 and remained here for the next 11 years before departing for the New World.

-- From p 147, the Mayflower and her log..." Robert Cushman died in 1625, but a "Mary" wife [widow?] of Robert Cushman, and their son, Thomas" seem to have been remembered in the will of Ellen Bigge, widow, of Cranbrook  proved Febrary 12 1638 (Archdeaconry, Canterbury, vol. 1xx.leaf 482). (Waters, Genealogical Gleanings in England, vol. i, p. 21)  The will intimated that the "Thomas" named was "under age" when the bequest was made.  If this is unmistakably so (though there is room for doubt), then this was not the Thomas of the Pilgrims. Otherwise the evidence is convincing.
 
Henry F. Waters abstracted her will (NEHGR, Jan. 1884):
"Ellen Bigge of Cranbrook, widow of Smalehope Bigge, of Cranbrook, clothier, 24 November, proved 12 February, 1638. To be buried in Cranbrooke Cemetery, near my husband. To Samuel Bigge, son of my brother John Bigge, of Maidstone. Lands and tenements at Rye in the County of Sussex to my only sister Mary, wife of Edward Benbrigg, jurat, of Rye, for her life, remainder to her son John Benbridge; to Anne Benbridge, alias Burrish, and Elizabeth and Mary Benbrig, daughters of my aforesaid sister Mary. To John Benbrigg, clerk, Thomas Benbrigg and Samuel Benbrigg, sons of my deceased sister Elizabeth; also her daughters Anne Benbrigge, alias Puttland, and Elizabeth Benbrigg ( the last named under age). My said sister Mary Benbrigg and her son John Benbrigg to be executors. To Peter Master, son of my brother Peter Master, of Cranbrook; to my sister-in-law Katherine Master. To William Dallett (son of my dec'd sister Bridgett) and his son (under age). To William Edwards, son of my sister Mercy. To Thomas Pilcher, Elizabeth Pilcher alias Beinson, Judith Pilcher alias Burges, and Anne Pilcher, son and daughters of my uncle John Pilcher of Rye, deceased. To Mary, wife of Robert Cushman and their son Thomas (under age). James Holden of Cranbrooke, clothier, and my brother-in-law Peter Master of Cranbrooke, mercer, to be overseers. Archdeaconry, Canterbury, Vol. 70, Leaf 482."

Note that John Robinson is buried at the Pieterskerk, same place that Robert’s wife, Sarah and two children are buried. It also appears that John Robinson lived close to where Robert was living. See following:

Date
1622, February 2
Names
Jepson, William, Jepson, Henry, Robinson, John, Thickins, Ralph, Wood, Henry, Lalaing, Johan van, Orlers, Jan Jansz, Moersbergen
Place
Leiden
Street
Groene Poort, Pieterskerkhof
Source
Judicial Archive of Leiden
Description
Power of Attorney granted to Henry Jepson by Henry Wood (1643) to sell a quarter part of De Groene Poort, a house on the southside of the Pieterskerkhof.Co-owners of the house are John Robinson, pastor of the English Church in Leyden, William Jepson and Ralph Thickins. Together they had bought the house from Johan de Laleing65

Recorded as Robert and Roberte Couchman in death record for Benenden, Canterbury, Kent England.
52

Timeline – Robert CUSHMAN - A Pilgrim from Kent

9 Feb 1577
Baptism in St. Mary the Virgin parish, Rolvenden, Kent
12 May 1586
Father Thomas’ of Rolvenden will proved
Dec 1596
Backdated apprenticeship to George Masters Canterbury – Urry KG
1603
Living with Masters in St. Andrew’s parish, Canterbury
14 Nov 1603
Court appearance
21 Nov 1603
Court of High Commission held at the Deanery – posting libels
24 Nov 1603
Imprisoned Westgate – 25 at Newman’s house St. Margaret’s
Jan 1604
Failed to appear at Archdeaconry court Dec 12, Jan 12
Excommunicated January 16 with 10 others in Canterbury
13 Feb 1604
Declaration of excommunication by William Swift, St. Andrews
15 Oct 1604
Humiliter petit for absolution
12 Nov 1604
Failure to appear in court
23 June 1605
2nd Declaration of excommunication by William Swift, St. Andrews
28 June 1605
Sought and was granted absolution
20 Sep 1605
Freeman of Canterbury
31 July 1606
Marriage to Sara Reder dwelling within the precincts of Christchurche
End 1607
Gore “ is runn away”
8 Feb 1607/8
Baptism of son Thomas St. Andrew’s, Canterbury last record England


29 Oct 1611
House purch. Leyden, Masterson bondsman 1st in Holland 154 426
28 Mar 1614
Bondsman to John Kebel, Canterbury, Jeremy NEHGR 154-431
9 June 1614
Bondsman to Henry Richard, Sandwich, Jeremy NEHGR 154-430
11 Mar 1616
Child buried Peterskierk – possible date
11 Oct 1616
Wife Sarah buried Peterskierk, child buried 24th.-possible date
6 June 1617
Married Mary Clarke Shingleton –he living in an alley in Nonnensteech
1617
with John Carver to negotiate with Virginia Co. Nov 12 1617 Sandys’ ltr
1619
Writing The Cry of a Stone in London
8 May 1619
London letter re Sandys and Blackwell
31 May 1620
Letter from Leyden church to Cushman & Carver
10 June 1620
Letter from London to John Carver re provisions
19 July 1620
Arrived on Mayflower from London to meet Speedwell– Arber, 335
6 Sep 1620
Mayflower sailed from Plymouth
12 Feb 1621
Leiden Power of attorney to Martijn Obejin & de Pon – Jeremy NEHGR
1621
Sailed on Fortune to Plymouth
1621
Sin and Danger of Self Love Sermon in Plymouth
29 July 1623
Yeoman, 45 years, Rosemary Lane - deposition
Early/mid1625
Death in London? – maybe Jan/Feb? Benenden?

Michael R. Paulick
Feb, 2002, revised 2016
SpouseSARAH REDER OR READER2,39 , 32
Birthca 1587, Kent, England66
Death11 Oct 1616, Leyden, Holland, age: 2967
BurialSaint Peter’s Cemetery, Leiden, Leiden Municipality, Zuid-Hollad, Netherlands
FlagsAncestor of RCC

Death: 
Oct. 11, 1616

Wife of Deacon Robert Cushman and mother of Elder Thomas Cushman. Robert and Thomas migrated to Plymouth Colony aboard the "Fortune" 4 years after Sara's death. She is buried at St. Peters, Leiden, Zuid-Holland Province, Netherlands. 68

She of Christ Church shown as Reder39

For many years the origins of Sara Reder or Reader, the first wife of Robert Cushman, have remained unknown. Cushman was well known as the principal agent working on behalf of the Mayflower Pilgrims in London in 1617. Little information about Sara is available in the written records. Robert Cushman and Sara Reder were married on 31 July, 1606 at St. Alphege Church, Canterbury. Their first child, Thomas, was baptized at St. Andrews, on 7 February, 1607/8. The two were Separatists who moved to Leiden, The Netherlands in about 1608/9 to join the Pilgrim Church. In 1616 Sara died in Leiden and was commemorated on a plaque of deceased Separatists on the wall of the Pieterskerk. Their son, Thomas Cushman, had eight children in Plymouth, New England and was the ancestor of many Cushman descendants in the United States.

In 2016, Michael Paulick and Robert C Cushman published additional information about the probable origins of Sara Reader. Her baptismal record at St. Mary’s Lenham, Kent, England for Sara and her brothers, Thomas and Helchea Reader - 17 September, 1585 “Baptizata fuit Sara filia Pauli Reader” [was baptized Sara daughter of Paule Reader]. See also, LDS Family History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah, microfilm #1751918, Item 3, Archdeacons transcripts: Baptisms, marriages and burials 1564-1813, [Lenham].69
Family ID20
Marriage31 Jul 1606, Canterbury, England70,71,39
Marr Memoat Alphege Parish church, Marriage 2nd; also married 3rd, Mary Clarke Singleton, June 5 at Leyden, Holland (Mayflower Planters, Vol. 2, the widow of Thomas Singleton of Sandwich, England. (page 179)
According to the published version of St. Alphege Parish Record, the script reads “The 31st of July 1606 were married Robert Cushman and Sara Reder dwelling with in P’rcincts of Christchurche”
ChildrenTHOMAS , 29 (1608-1691)
 UNK. , 1437 (1611-1616)
 UNK. , 1475 (1614-1616)
 SARAH , 1489 (~1615-1638)

Other spouses: MARY (CLARKE) SINGLETON

(3) 1.1.4b ROBERT CUSHMAN* (See above)
SpouseMARY (CLARKE) SINGLETON , 584
Birth24 May 159012,72
Birth MemoChristening 31 Jan 1590 Saint George The Maryr, Canterbury, Kent
Widow of Thomas Singleton of Sandwich, England.49 Thomas Shingleton of Sandwich, Shoemaker, and Mary Clarke of the same parish, virgin, at St. Mary Bredman’s Canterbury, 28 January 1610/11. Printed in Cowpers’s Canterbury Marriage Licenses, Series 1, column 374. 73 “Married once before to (fnu) Singleton, a Canterbury shoemaker. Mary was from Sandwich.”74 Father was William Clarke (Source Cowper, 16). She married Robert Cushman when he was 40 years old. She was 27 years old. Probably died after 1620 because there is evidence that she and her step son-Thomas accompanied Robert Cushman on Mayflower voyage from London to South Hampton, there to meet the Speedwell.75 She did not accompany her husband Robert to New England in 1621 (Fortune) but when he traveled there, he did not intend to stay, for he returned to England to continue as business agent for the colony. Because he received a share of land division, it was probably his intent to return to Plymouth, but he died in England before his dream could be realized.

I have a copy of the 1617 marriage record of Robbert Coeetsman (Robert Cushman) to Mary Chingelton (Mary Shingleton) in Leiden.76 Mary was born Mary Clark in Sandwich. The 27th day of January, [1610/11] were married Thomas Shingleton of ye psh of St. Peters in Sandwich Mary Clarke of the same, virgin & Lics[ense]. Mary Clarke daughter of Christopher, baptized St. Peters on 24 May 1590.
Family ID442
Marriage5 Jun 1617, Leyden, Holland77,49,73,78,79,80
Marr MemoWaterman Genealogy has marriage date as 3 Jun 1617.

Other spouses: SARAH REDER OR READER

(3) 1.1.5 MARGARET COUCHEMAN OR CUSHMAN 21,38, 1439
Birth25 Mar 1582, Rolvenden, County Kent, England21,1,6,12,81,37,9
Birth Memo1582/83
Death5 Feb 1583, Rolvenden, County Kent, England, age: <11,21,6,39
Burial5 Feb 1583, Rolvenden, County Kent, England1,82,13
Burial Memo1584
FlagsEngland, Gen #1
St Mary, The Virgin. Anglican. Source: National Burial Index for England and Wales.39 This parish record shows her to be daughter of Thomas Coucheman.9

(3) 1.1.6 HARRY CUSHMAN OR COUCHMAN 21,1, 1440
Birth26 Jul 1584, Rolvenden, County Kent, England1,6,39,9
Birth Memobaptized 26 Jul 1584
Death11 Apr 1585, Rolvenden, County Kent, England, age: <121,1,6,39,9
Death Memodate of burial
Burial11 Apr 1585, Rolvenden, County Kent, England1,83,84,39
Burial MemoSt Mary, the Virgin, Anglican
FlagsEngland, Gen #1
His baptism reads “Harry s of Thomas Couchman” though many genealogies refer to him as “Henry”. One reader of the actual record has him as “Henry”12 St Mary, the Virgin, Anglican.39 Source: Rolvenden baptismsm 1556-1899.39 Burial record has his buried 11 Apr 155, Rolvenden Kent England, son of Tholmas Cowcheman.9

(2) 1.2 ELIZABETH CUSHMAN OR COUCHMAN 85,39, 1477
Birthabt 154027
Death30 Sep 1576, Cranbrook, Kent, England, age: 361,27,35
ResidenceCranbrook Kent Co. England39
FlagsEngland, Gen #1
Elizabeth Couchman daugher of Thomae. England deathe and burials 1538-1991.35 Also, Kent, East Kent marriage index 1538-175439

First name(s)
Eliz
Last name
Couchman
Residence
Cranbrook
Marriage year
1561
Marriage date
15 Sep 1561
Marriage place
Cranbrook
Spouse's first name(s)
John
Spouse's last name
Smersal
Spouse's residence
Cranbrook
County
Kent
Country
England
Record set
Kent, East Kent marriage index 1538-1754
Category
Birth, Marriage & Death (Parish Registers)
Subcategory
Marriages & divorces
Collections from
United Kingdom
SpouseJOHN SMERSALOR SMERSOLL1,86,39 , 1485
ResidenceCranbrook Kent Co. England39
Family ID1003
Marriage15 Sep 1561, Cranbrook, Kent, England87,27

(2) 1.3 RICHARDE Or Rychard CUSHMAN OR COWCHEMAN Sr 85,35, 1478
Birthabt 154227
Death15 Sep 1575, age: 331,27
Burial15 Sep 1575, Cranbrook Kent Co. England27,39,88
ResidenceCranbrook Kent Co. England35
FlagsEngland, Gen #1
Source: Kent, East Kent marriage index 1538-175439 Note line of descent should have same Y-DNA as descendents of Robert Cushman, the Puritan. This Richard is recorded as Richard Couchman, Sr. which means there was a Richard Couchman, Jr.35,89
SpouseFRANCES BALDWIN, OR BAWDWINE (BAHLWINNER) OR BAWDWYN90,27,39 , 1479
Death23 Mar 156827
ResidenceCranbrook Kent Co. England
FlagsEngland
Shown as Baudwine. Ffaunces Bawdwine is the name recorded in the Parish Register.27 Source: Kent, East Kent marriage index 1538-175439
Family ID1004
Marriage28 May 1564, Cranbrook, Kent Co. England27,39
ChildrenRichard Jr , 27432

(3) 1.3.1 Richard CUSHMAN OR COWCHEMAN Jr 91, 27432
ResidenceCranbrook, Kent Co. England92
FlagsEngland, No Connect
Burial record of father, Richard Couchman, Sr. indicates there was a son also named Richard. See burial record at Birth, marriage and death (Parish Registers) at FindMyPast.com35

(2) 1.4 JOHN CUSHMAN Sr 85,39, 1480
Birth1544
Death4 Mar 1568, Cranbrook Kent Co. England, age: 241,93,94
ResidenceCranbrook Kent Co. England39
FlagsEngland, Gen #1
According to Elizabeth French article, John of Rolvenden Co. Kent, the testator of 1523/4, d. between 2 Mar 1523/4 and 10 May following, leaving no issue. This must have been a different John. Note the use of the suffix “Sen.” meaning senior.
SpouseMARY SHEAFFE1 , 1483
Sheaffe was a very prominent clothier family in Kent. See The Weald of Kent book.95
Family ID1005
Marriage26 Jan 1561, Cranbrook, Kent, England87,27,39
Marr Memoor 26 Jan 1562
Recorded as Shcafe. Source: England Marriages 1538-197339

(2) 1.5 ANNE CUSHMAN 85, 1481
Birth1546, Cranbrook, Kent, England27
Death2 Dec 1562, age: 161
FlagsEngland, Gen #1
Anne Couchman may have married Thomas Harman. Her sister, Joan, married Richard, the brother of Thomas. However, Anne’sdeath date is before marriage date. Note Thomas Harman was first married to Joan Jefferye 13 Oct 1565, probably buried 4 Nov. 1565. He married Anne Couchman 13 May 1566.96
SpouseTHOMAS HARMAN97 , 1420
Thomas Harman was son of Thomas Harman who died in Cranbrook, Kent, England about 1548. Anne Couchman may have married Thomas Harman. Her sister, Joan, married Richard, the brother of Thomas. Death date is before marriage date. Note Thomas Harman was first married to Joan Jefferye 13 Oct 1565, probably buried 4 Nov. 1565. He married Anned Couchman 13 May 1566.96

His siblings were born 1534-1561
Family ID1006
Marriage13 May 156696

(2) 1.6 JOAN CROUCHEMAN 85, 1482
ResidenceCranbrook Kent Co. England39
FlagsEngland, Gen #1
Joan aka Johne, Johane, Jan Crocheman
Johane mentioned in her brother’s will in 1523/4, when she was unmarried.84
Richard Harman, probably born about 1534 (named second in his father's will); buried 8 Jul 1571; m. 6 Nov. 1559, Joan Couchman.” (NEHGS Register vol 137, p 295).
First name(s)
Joan
Last name
Couchman
Residence
Cranbrook
Marriage year
1559
Marriage date
06 Nov 1559
Marriage place
Cranbrook
Spouse's first name(s)
Richard
Spouse's last name
Harman
Spouse's residence
Cranbrook
County
Kent
Country
England
Record set
Kent, East Kent marriage index 1538-1754
Category
Birth, Marriage & Death (Parish Registers)
Subcategory
Marriages & divorces
Collections from
United Kingdom
SpouseRICHARD HARMAN1 , 1486
Alvah Burt has the name as Haxman. The name was probably Harman. Ricahrd Harman was born in Cranbrook about 1534, and died in July 1571. He married Joan Couchman on 6 November 1559. He was buried on July 9, 1571. 98 Richard in mentioned in his father’s Will. of 17 Nove 1547.
Family ID1007
Marriage6 Nov 1559, Cranbrook, Kent Co. England99,100